Wolfram Research

Darwin's Plant Experiments

Curated data from Darwin's plant experiments and related text

Over an 11-year period starting in the 1860sw Charles Darwin performed a series of experiments to determine the extend of Hybrid Vigour in a variety of plants species

Examples

Basic Usage

Find the EntityStore relevant to Darwin’s plant experiment:

In[1]:=
ResourceObject["Darwin's Plant Experiments"]
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Register the EntityStore:

In[2]:=
EntityRegister@ResourceData["Darwin's Plant Experiments"]
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The reference containing relevant text and data:

In[3]:=
darwinBook = 
 Entity["Reference", "The Effects of Cross & Self-Fertilisation
  in the Vegetable Kingdom"]
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There are multiple sources for Charles Darwin’s publications:

In[4]:=
darwinBook["Sources"] // Dataset
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In[5]:=
darwinBook["PlainText"] // WordCloud
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By generalizing Wood’s application of grammatical structure to measure sentence complexity (Wood, 2018) ...

In[6]:=
sentenceComplexity[text_String, {graphType_, metric_}] := 
  Mean@metric@# & /@ 
   Flatten[TextStructure[#, graphType] & /@ TextSentences@text];
sentenceComplexity[{graphType_, metric_}] := 
  Function[text, sentenceComplexity[text, {graphType, metric}]];
plotSentenceComplexity[text_, gc : {graphType_, metric_}, popts___] :=
  ListPlot[
  sentenceComplexity[gc] /@ Flatten[{text}],
  Filling -> Axis, Joined -> True, popts]

... we can get a glimpse of Darwin’s (un?)changing writing style between 1859 and 1876, the respective publication dates of The Origin of Species and

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...

In[7]:=
Darwin1859 = 
  StringTake[ExampleData[{"Text", "OriginOfSpecies"}], 
   130000 ;; 135000];
Darwin1876 = StringTake[darwinBook["PlainText"], 130000 ;; 135000];
pl = {"On the Origin of Species (1859)", 
   "The Effects of Cross and Self-Fertilization\n in the Vegetable \
Kingdom (1876)"};

... by comparing the average degree centrality of Darwin’s sentences broken down by dependency grammars ...

In[8]:=
plotSentenceComplexity[{Darwin1859, Darwin1876}, {"DependencyGraphs", 
  DegreeCentrality}, PlotLegends -> pl]
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... as well as broken down by phrase structure grammars.

In[9]:=

plotSentenceComplexity[{Darwin1859, Darwin1876}, {"ConstituentGraphs",
   ClosenessCentrality}, PlotLegends -> pl]
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The text in Darwin’s original book ...

In[10]:=
darwinBook["Image"]
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contains various Quote entities

In[11]:=
Entity["Quote", "Darwin-hybridism"]["Dataset"]
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In[12]:=
Entity["Quote", "Darwin-hybridism"]["QuoteForm"]
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Darwin experimented on a range of plants from around the world but perhaps most famously on Zea Mays (corn)

In[13]:=
zea = Entity["DarwinPlantExperiment", "ZeaMays"]
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Darwin compared cross-fertilized and self-fertilized pairs that were each placed in one of four pots.

In[14]:=
zea["Data"] // Dataset
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In[15]:=
pd = zea["PairedData"]
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From which statistical significance indicates some support for hybrid vigour in Zea Mays.

In[16]:=
TTest[Subtract @@@ pd, Quantity[0, "Inches"], "TestConclusion", 
 AlternativeHypothesis -> "Greater", SignificanceLevel -> 0.05]
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Darwin’s experiments often also involved multiple generations.

In[17]:=
ipo = Entity["DarwinGenerationalPlantExperiment", "IpomoeaPurpurea"]
Out[17]=
In[18]:=
ipo["Data"] // Dataset
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onSoc, "Darwin's Plant Experiments" from the Wolfram Data Repository (2019) 

Data Resource History

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